Ultrasound Rendering of Tactile Interaction with Fluids
When we interact with ﬂuid media, e.g., with our hands, we experience a spatially and temporally varying pressure ﬁeld on our skin, which depends on the density and viscosity of the ﬂuid, as well as the relative motion between our hands and the surrounding ﬂow. Ultrasound phased arrays stimulate skin in mid air by controlling pressure waves at particular spatial locations. In this work, we explore the connection between the pressure-based stimulation of ultrasound haptics and the actual pressure ﬁeld experienced when interacting with ﬂuid media, to devise a novel algorithm for ultrasoundbasedrenderingoftactileinteractionwithﬂuids.Ouralgorithm extracts the target pressure ﬁeld on a virtual hand from an interactive ﬂuid simulation, and formulates the computation of the rendered pressure as an optimization problem. We have designed an efﬁcient solver for this optimization problem, and we show results of interactive experiments with several ﬂuid simulations.
Conference: 2019 IEEE World Haptics Conference (WHC)