Opium alkaloids in food products: current and future perspectives
Background: In recent years, there has been increasing interest from health authorities in avoiding consumer exposure to opium alkaloids in food. Thus, recent cases of intoxication and false positive drug tests, from the consumption of poppy seeds and food, have been detected. In order to know more certainly the concentration of these substances in food and to establish more reliably the consumption of these toxics in the population, data on their presence in food should be further collected. These compounds are found at ultra-trace levels in complex matrices, so it is important to develop efficient analytical methods based on selective analytical techniques and adequate sample treatment, which is key to avoid matrix effects. Scope and approach: This review summarizes the actual situation of opioids in food products. It establishes the cause of their presence in food, the risk of consumption and actions to prevent their exposure. In addition, it sums the techniques of sample treatment and analysis of all available articles on opioids in different samples. Key findings and conclusions: The studies that have been made of opioids are mainly about morphine. For this reason, there is a need to do more studies with all of them. Besides, most of the studies are in biological samples, following consumption of poppy seeds or foods. Therefore, there is to develop and validate new methods that are effective for complex matrices such are foods, to know exactly the actual exposure to consumers and how to decrease it.
Authors thank financial support to Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (MCIU), to Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI) and to Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER, UE) (Proyecto RTI2018-094558-B-100, EVALKALIM).
- C - Artículos de Revista