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The concerning food safety issue of pyrrolizidine alkaloids: An overview

dc.contributor.authorCasado, Natalia
dc.contributor.authorMorante-Zarcero, Sonia
dc.contributor.authorSierra, Isabel
dc.identifier.citationNatalia Casado, Sonia Morante-Zarcero, Isabel Sierra, The concerning food safety issue of pyrrolizidine alkaloids: An overview, Trends in Food Science & Technology, Volume 120, 2022, Pages 123-139, ISSN 0924-2244,
dc.description.abstractBackground In the last years, several food alerts have identified high levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in a wide variety of food products, highlighting their occurrence as a concerning food safety issue. Scope and approach Currently, there is a call to collect new data on the occurrence of PAs in food matrices that, to date, have been less studied, as well as to develop sensitive and potent analytical methods that enable the determination of these compounds at very low concentration levels, and evaluate the effect of food processing on the stability of these contaminants. Accordingly, this review gives an overview about PAs, regarding general aspects such as their chemical structure, classification, toxicity, risk assessment, occurrence in food, contamination paths and effect of food processing. Likewise, the most relevant analytical procedures for their determination in different food products of the last 10 years (2010–2020) are included. Key findings and conclusions PAs exhibit developmental toxicity and have shown to be hepatotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic. For this reason, it is important to control their occurrence in food through the development of sensitive, selective and environmentally friendly analytical methods that can be properly validated to achieve a correct identification and quantification of these compounds. In the last decade, many efforts have been made to address this food safety issue and maximum concentration limits have been regulated for food products likely to be contaminated with these alkaloids. However, further investigation is required regarding food processing and dilution factors to achieve a reliable assessment of the real intake of these alkaloids by the population and improve the risk management of these natural
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internacional*
dc.subjectPyrrolizidine alkaloidses
dc.subjectNatural toxinses
dc.subjectAnalytical methodses
dc.subjectFood processinges
dc.subjectRisk assessmentes
dc.titleThe concerning food safety issue of pyrrolizidine alkaloids: An overviewes

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 InternacionalExcept where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internacional