Evaluation of the Transfer and Occurrence of Opium Alkaloids in Poppy Seed Teas Using Preconcentrations with µSPEed® Followed by GC-MS Analysis
Intoxication due to the consumption of poppy seed teas has been reported due to their contamination with opium alkaloids (OAs). In this work, an efficient methodology based on microsolid-phase extraction (µSPEed®) followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been optimized to quantify five OAs in poppy seed teas. Nine cartridges (C4, C8, C18, silica, APS, PFAs, PS/DVB-RP, PS/DVB-SCX and PS/DVB-SAX), pH levels, cycles and elution solvents were evaluated. The method was validated and applied to study the transfer of OAs by evaluating water temperatures, infusion times and seed amounts. The highest transfer rates (71% for morphine, 96% for thebaine, and 100% for codeine, noscapine and papaverine) were achieved at 90°C, 5 min, with 4 g. These conditions were used to quantify the OAs in four teas prepared from different seeds. A high amount of morphine (1563 µg/L) was found in one tea, indicating that the seeds had a concentration twice the maximum limit, highlighting the need to warn the population of this dangerous practice.
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