Clustering analysis reveals different profiles associating long-term post-COVID symptoms, COVID-19 symptoms at hospital admission and previous medical co-morbidities in previously hospitalized COVID-19 survivors
Purpose To identify subgroups of COVID-19 survivors exhibiting long-term post-COVID symptoms according to clinical/ hospitalization data by using cluster analysis in order to foresee the illness progress and facilitate subsequent prognosis. Methods Age, gender, height, weight, pre-existing medical comorbidities, Internal Care Unit (ICU) admission, days at hospital, and presence of COVID-19 symptoms at hospital admission were collected from hospital records in a sample of patients recovered from COVID-19 at fve hospitals in Madrid (Spain). A predefned list of post-COVID symptoms was systematically assessed a mean of 8.4 months (SD 15.5) after hospital discharge. Anxiety/depressive levels and sleep quality were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, respectively. Cluster analysis was used to identify groupings of COVID-19 patients without introducing any previous assumptions, yielding three diferent clusters associating post-COVID symptoms with acute COVID-19 symptoms at hospital admission. Results Cluster 2 grouped subjects with lower prevalence of medical co-morbidities, lower number of COVID-19 symptoms at hospital admission, lower number of post-COVID symptoms, and almost no limitations with daily living activities when compared to the others. In contrast, individuals in cluster 0 and 1 exhibited higher number of pre-existing medical co-morbidities, higher number of COVID-19 symptoms at hospital admission, higher number of long-term post-COVID symptoms (particularly fatigue, dyspnea and pain), more limitations on daily living activities, higher anxiety and depressive levels, and worse sleep quality than those in cluster 2. Conclusions The identifed subgrouping may refect diferent mechanisms which should be considered in therapeutic interventions.
Open Access funding provided thanks to the CRUE-CSIC agreement with Springer Nature. The LONG-COVID-EXP-CM is supported by a grant of Comunidad de Madrid y la Unión Europea, a través del Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER), Recursos REACT-UE del Programa Operativo de Madrid 2014–2020, financiado como parte de la respuesta de la Unión a la pandemia de COVID-19The sponsor had no role in the design, collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data, draft, review, or approval of the manuscript or its content. The authors were responsible for the decision to submit the manuscript for publication, and the sponsor did not participate in this decision.
- Artículos de Revista 
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.