Sensory processing and adaptive behavior in Phelan-McDermid syndrome: a cross-sectional study
Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation or deletion of the SHANK3 gene (chromosome 22q13.3), characterized by diferent sensory processing anomalies. The objective of this study is to expand and provide a detailed defnition of the sensory profle of patients with PMS. The secondary objective was to examine the relationship between sensory patterns and adaptive behavior. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 51 Spanish patients with a confrmed genetic diagnosis of PMS. All the participants’ parents completed the Short Sensory Profle-Spanish (SSP-S) and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System II (ABAS-II). Correlational, multiple regression and hierarchical cluster analyses were performed. An atypical sensory profle was identifed in almost 75% of PMS patients. Defnite diferences were found among scores; nonetheless, sub-threshold values were observed in tactile sensitivity, underresponsive/seeks sensation, auditory fltering, and low energy/weak sensory categories. Conceptual, social, and practical domains, as well as the General Adaptive Composite (GAC) of the ABAS-II showed extremely low scores (i.e., <70). Signifcant correlations were found (p<0.005) between SSP-S scores and the conceptual, social, practical, and GAC index of the ABAS-II, whereby higher SSP-S scores were associated with better skills and higher adaptive performance. The cluster analysis indicated that the group with the largest mutation size (7.23 Mb) showed the greatest sensory processing difculties and very low adaptive skills. Conclusions: Patients with PMS show an atypical sensory profle, which correlates with limitations in general adaptive behaviors.
Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Phelan-McDermid Syndrome Association–Spain and the families involved in this study for their collaboration. Funding Open Access funding provided thanks to the CRUE-CSIC agreement with Springer Nature.
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