Determinants of High-tech Exports: New Evidence from OECD Countries
High export capacity is a key element for sustained long-term economic growth. To achieve this goal, the technological sophistication of exports plays a key role. To enhance exports with a high level of technological sophistication, it is critical to target key drivers of high-tech exports. Hence, this article studies the determinants of international trade fows of manufactures according to their technological content in the case of OECD countries. Given a panel of 35 countries and 15 years (2004 to 2018), panel data estimation techniques are used in the analysis. In addition, two alternative measures have been considered to measure the importance of high-technology content manufacturing exports: High-tech manufacturing exports and high-tech manufacturing exports as a share of total employment. Results obtained show strong evidence of the relevance of variables such as gross fxed capital formation on total employment, the land area per capita, the percentage of university graduates relative to the population group, R&D expenditure in terms of GDP, the stock of inward foreign direct investment in terms of GDP, imports of high-tech manufactures as a share of GDP, the quality of national governance and regulation, the country population and EU membership as determinants of technology-intensive exports. Moreover, the fndings have signifcant implications for trade and industrial policies in OECD countries, to ensure the efectiveness of policies targeting the technological upgrading of exports.
Open Access funding provided thanks to the CRUE-CSIC agreement with Springer Nature. This manuscript was funded by Comunidad de Madrid and the European Social Fund (Grant Number: H2019/HUM-5761).
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