Panoramic ultrasound imaging does not produce muscle morphology deformation during imaging acquisition: A validity study
Purpose: Despite panoramic ultrasound imaging (US) is a promising advance for the morphological and histological assessment of large musculature which cannot be entirely assessed using B-mode, there is no evidence assessing if this technology produces muscle deformation during imaging acquisition. We aimed to analyze differences in size, shape and brightness descriptors between B-mode and panoramic US images and to assess the concordance between both methods. Methods We analyzed size (cross-sectional area and perimeter), shape (circularity, aspect ratio and roundness) and brightness (mean echo-intensity) features of cervical multifidus (CM) and short rotators (SR) in 46 healthy volunteers. Images were acquired in B-mode and extended field-of-view mode. For validity analysis, mean differences between methods were calculated. For agreement analysis, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurements (SEM), minimal detectable changes (MDC) and coefficient of variation (CV%) were calculated. Results: All parameters showed no significant differences between both methods for either CM or SR (P > 0.05). Panoramic US showed excellent concordance with B-mode for assessing all CM parameters (all ICCs > 0.9), while for SR the agreement ranged from good-to-excellent (ICC from 0.861 to 0.978). Conclusion: Panoramic US seems to be a valid tool for assessment of muscle size, shape and brightness as no deformation in comparison with B-mode images was seen. Further research is needed to corroborate these findings comparing panoramic US imaging with Gold Standard methods.
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