SWIPT-Enhanced Cell-Free Massive MIMO Networks
Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) has been advocated as a highly promising technology to provide near- perpetual operation to low-powered wireless devices in Internet-of-Things (IoT)-based wireless networks. In this paper, a SWIPT-enhanced cell-free massive MIMO network is proposed. In such a network, a large set of spatially distributed access points (APs) interconnected via a central processing unit (CPU) can collaboratively serve a large number of both energy harvesting mobile stations (MSs) (requiring wireless energy transfer) and conventional MSs (not requiring wireless energy transfer) on the same time-frequency resources. We consider spatially correlated Rician fading channels and the use of different precoding schemes that are based on different channel estimators differing on the assumed knowledge of the line-of-sight component. Mathematically manageable expressions are derived for the harvested energy during the downlink (DL) energy harvesting phase and the achievable spectral and energy efficiencies during the uplink (UL) payload transmission phase. A coupled UL/DL optimization problem is formulated aiming at finding the power control coefficients that maximize the minimum of the weighted achievable UL signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratios (SINRs) of all MSs. Extensive numerical results are presented that serve to highlight the existing trade-offs among the achievable spectral and energy efficiencies, the harvested energy, the energy dedicated to UL pilot transmission or the system configuration.
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