Contrasting catastrophic eruptions predicted by different intrusion and collapse scenarios
Catastrophic volcanic eruptions triggered by landslide collapses can jet upwards or blast sideways. Magma intrusion is related to both landslide-triggered eruptive scenarios (lateral or vertical), but it is not clear how such different responses are produced, nor if any precursor can be used for forecasting them. We approach this problem with physical analogue modelling enhanced with X-ray Multiple Detector Computed Tomography scanning, used to track evolution of internal intrusion, and its related faulting and surface deformation. We find that intrusions produce three different volcano deformation patterns, one of them involving asymmetric intrusion and deformation, with the early development of a listric slump fault producing pronounced slippage of one sector. This previously undescribed early deep potential slip surface provides a unified explanation for the two different eruptive scenarios (lateral vs. vertical). Lateral blast only occurs in flank collapse when the intrusion has risen into the sliding block. Otherwise, vertical rather than lateral expansion of magma is promoted by summit dilatation and flank buttressing. The distinctive surface deformation evolution detected opens the possibility to forecast the possible eruptive scenarios: laterally directed blast should only be expected when surface deformation begins to develop oblique to the first major fault.
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