Local predictability and nonhyperbolicity through finite Lyapunov exponent distributions in two-degrees-of-freedom Hamiltonian systems
By using finite Lyapunov exponent distributions, we get insight into both the local and global properties of a dynamical flow, including its nonhyperbolic behavior. Several distributions of finite Lyapunov exponents have been computed in two prototypical four-dimensional phase-space Hamiltonian systems. They have been computed calculating the growth rates of a set of orthogonal axes arbitrarily pointed at given intervals. We analyze how such distributions serve or not for tracing the orbit nature and local flow properties such as the unstable dimension variability, as the axes are allowed or not to tend to the largest stretching direction. The relationship between the largest and closest to zero exponent distribution is analyzed. It shows a linear depen- dency at short intervals, related to the number of degrees of freedom of the system. Finally, the hyperbolicity indexes, associated to the shadowing times, are calculated. They provide interesting information at very local scales, even when there are no Gaussian distributions and the values cannot be regarded as random variables.
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