Bioaccesibility, Metabolism, and Excretion of Lipids Composing Spent Coffee Grounds
The bioaccessibility, metabolism, and excretion of lipids composing spent coffee grounds (SCGs) were investigated. An analysis of mycotoxins and an acute toxicity study in rats were performed for safety evaluation. Total fat, fatty acids, and diterpenes (cafestol and kahweol) were determined in SCGs and their digests obtained in vitro. A pilot repeated intake study was carried out in Wistar rats using a dose of 1 g SCGs/kg b.w. for 28 days. Fat metabolism was evaluated by analysis of total fat, cholesterol, and histology in liver. The dietary fiber effect of SCGs was measured radiographically. The absence of mycotoxins and toxicity was reported in SCGs. A total of 77% of unsaturated fatty acids and low amounts of kahweol (7.09 _g/g) and cafestol (414.39 _g/g) were bioaccessible after in vitro digestion. A significantly lower (p < 0.1) accumulation of lipids in the liver and a higher excretion of these in feces was found in rats treated with SCGs for 28 days. No lipid droplets or liver damage were observed by histology. SCGs acutely accelerated intestinal motility in rats. SCGs might be considered a sustainable, safe, and healthy food ingredient with potential for preventing hepatic steatosis due to their effect as dietary fiber with a high fat-holding capacity.
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