Prognosis Value of Immunoregulatory Molecules in Oral Cancer Microenvironment: An Immunohistochemical Study
Objectives: To evaluate the relationship of the immune-checkpoint PD-1/PD-L1 with the clinical evolution of OSCC; to assess survival in OSCC based on the characteristics of TME and histologic risk score; to evaluate the clinical and histopathological relationship of OSCC with immunological TME. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out on 65 samples from patients with OSCC on the floor of the mouth or tongue. Clinicopathological variables and the expression of the biomarkers PD-1, PD-L1, FoxP3, CD4, CD8, CSF1R, and p16 were recorded. The relationship of the clinical and histological variables with the expression of the biomarkers and survival was studied. Results: The univariate and multivariate analysis indicated that positive PD-1 expression was an independent protective factor for survival (overall, disease-free, disease-specific survival) and that high PD-L1 also improved survival. Poorly differentiated histological grades and metastasis were associated with a worse prognosis. Conclusions: PD-1 is a protective survival factor that is maintained independently of PD-L1 expression. High values of PD-L1 expression also improve survival. Higher expression of PD-1 is observed in smaller tumors, and higher expression of PD-L1 is more likely in women. No relationship between the tumor microenvironment and histologic risk score was found to influence the survival patterns studied in the OSCC. There is no evidence of a relationship between the histopathological features and the studied markers, although the positive PD-1 and PD-L1 cases have a lower risk of a high WPOI score, and positive PD-1 expression was associated with a lower DOI.
Funding: This research was funded by the Fundación para la investigación Biomédica Hospital Universitario La Paz with the project number: EC_5474. The research has been partially funded through a predoctoral research grant awarded by the Official College of Dentists of Madrid (Madrid, Spain) with not project number associated.
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